Hands-on-Experiments vs. Computer-based Simulations in Energy Storage Laboratories

It has been shown that hands-on student laboratory work can significantly influence the outcomes of student learning. Nevertheless, many universities and vocational training institutions conduct laboratories as simulated experiments instead. This is due to the costs of proper laboratory equipment to engage students in effective learning. Another reason is the increased amount of supervision to conduct hands-on labs safely, especially when the object of the experiment is potentially dangerous, such as lithium-ion battery cells.
Due to this a crossover study compares student laboratory work conducted in two different learning modes: first as a practical hands-on exercise and second using computer-based simulations.